- United Arab Emirates
Introduction ::United Arab EmiratesBackground:The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf coast granted the UK control of their defense and foreign affairs in 19th century treaties. In 1971, six of these states - Abu Dhabi, 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, and Umm al Qaywayn - merged to form the United Arab Emirates (UAE). They were joined in 1972 by Ra's al Khaymah. The UAE's per capita GDP is on par with those of leading West European nations. Its high oil revenues and its moderate foreign policy stance have allowed the UAE to play a vital role in the affairs of the region. For more than three decades, oil and global finance drove the UAE's economy. However, in 2008-09, the confluence of falling oil prices, collapsing real estate prices, and the international banking crisis hit the UAE especially hard. The UAE has essentially avoided the ""Arab Spring"" unrest seen elsewhere in the Middle East, though in March 2011, political activists and intellectuals signed a petition calling for greater public participation in governance that was widely circulated on the Internet. In an effort to stem potential further unrest, the government announced a multi-year, $1.6-billion infrastructure investment plan for the poorer northern Emirates.Geography ::United Arab EmiratesLocation:Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi ArabiaGeographic coordinates:24 00 N, 54 00 EArea:total: 83,600 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 115land: 83,600 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than MaineLand boundaries:total: 867 kmborder countries: Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 457 kmCoastline:1,318 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmcontinental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental marginClimate:desert; cooler in eastern mountainsTerrain:flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in eastElevation extremes:lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 mhighest point: Jabal Yibir 1,527 mNatural resources:petroleum, natural gasLand use:arable land: 0.61%permanent crops: 0.5%other: 98.9% (2011)Irrigated land:920 sq km (2010)Total renewable water resources:0.15 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 3.99 cu km/yr (15%/2%/83%)per capita: 739.5 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:frequent sand and dust stormsEnvironment - current issues:lack of natural freshwater resources compensated by desalination plants; desertification; beach pollution from oil spillsEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protectionsigned, but not ratified: Law of the SeaGeography - note:strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oilPeople and Society ::United Arab EmiratesNationality:noun: Emirati(s)adjective: EmiratiEthnic groups:Emirati 19%, other Arab and Iranian 23%, South Asian 50%, other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)note: less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)Languages:Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, UrduReligions:Muslim (Islam - official) 96% (Shia 16%), other (includes Christian, Hindu) 4%Population:5,473,972 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 114note: estimate is based on the results of the 2005 census that included a significantly higher estimate of net immigration of non-citizens than previous estimatesAge structure:0-14 years: 20.6% (male 577,599/female 551,346)15-24 years: 13.8% (male 449,258/female 306,410)25-54 years: 61.5% (male 2,570,054/female 798,070)55-64 years: 3.1% (male 127,569/female 40,996)65 years and over: 1% (male 33,481/female 19,189) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 18.6 %youth dependency ratio: 18.1 %elderly dependency ratio: 0.5 %potential support ratio: 201.7 (2013)Median age:total: 30.3 yearsmale: 32 yearsfemale: 25 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:2.87% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 14Birth rate:15.65 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 129Death rate:2.01 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 224Net migration rate:15.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 6Urbanization:urban population: 84.4% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 2.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:ABU DHABI (capital) 666,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.46 male(s)/female25-54 years: 3.23 male(s)/female55-64 years: 3.19 male(s)/female65 years and over: 1.77 male(s)/femaletotal population: 2.19 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:12 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 147Infant mortality rate:total: 11.25 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 134male: 13.12 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 9.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.91 yearscountry comparison to the world: 71male: 74.31 yearsfemale: 79.63 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.37 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 91Contraceptive prevalence rate:27.5% (1995)Health expenditures:3.7% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 172Physicians density:1.93 physicians/1,000 population (2007)Hospital bed density:1.9 beds/1,000 population (2008)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 98% of populationrural: 95% of populationtotal: 98% of populationunimproved:urban: 2% of populationrural: 5% of populationtotal: 2% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.2% (2001 est.)country comparison to the world: 93HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - deaths:NAObesity - adult prevalence rate:32.7% (2008)country comparison to the world: 22Education expenditures:1.1% of GDP (2004)country comparison to the world: 171Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 90%male: 89.5%female: 91.5% (2005 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 yearsmale: 13 yearsfemale: 14 years (2009)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 12.1%country comparison to the world: 97male: 7.9%female: 21.8% (2008)Government ::United Arab EmiratesCountry name:conventional long form: United Arab Emiratesconventional short form: nonelocal long form: Al Imarat al Arabiyah al Muttahidahlocal short form: noneformer: Trucial Oman, Trucial Statesabbreviation: UAEGovernment type:federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE federal government and other powers reserved to member emiratesCapital:name: Abu Dhabigeographic coordinates: 24 28 N, 54 22 Etime difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy (Dubai), Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al QaywaynIndependence:2 December 1971 (from the UK)National holiday:Independence Day, 2 December (1971)Constitution:2 December 1971; made permanent in 1996Legal system:mixed legal system of Islamic law and civil lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:limited; note - rulers of the seven Emirates each select a proportion of voters for the Federal National Council (FNC) that together account for about 12 percent of the native Emirati populationExecutive branch:chief of state: President KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (since 3 November 2004), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 4 November 2004); Vice President and Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN RASHID Al-Maktum (since 5 January 2006)head of government: Prime Minister and Vice President MUHAMMAD BIN RASHID Al-Maktum (since 5 January 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers SAIF bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (since 11 May 2009) and MANSUR bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (since 11 May 2009)cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president(For more information visit the World Leaders website )note: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) composed of the seven emirate rulers; the FSC is the highest constitutional authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions federal legislation; meets four times a year; Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers have effective veto powerelections: president and vice president elected by the FSC for five-year terms (no term limits) from among the seven FSC members; election last held 3 November 2004 upon the death of the UAE's Founding Father and first President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (next election NA); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the presidentelection results: KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan elected president by a unanimous vote of the FSC; MUHAMMAD bin Rashid Al-Maktum unanimously affirmed vice president after the 2006 death of his brother Sheikh MAKTUM bin Rashid Al-MaktumLegislative branch:unicameral Federal National Council (FNC) or Majlis al-Ittihad al-Watani (40 seats; 20 members appointed by the rulers of the constituent states, 20 members elected to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 24 September 2011 (next to be held in 2015); note - the electoral college was expanded from 6,689 voters in the December 2006 election to 129,274 in the September 2011 election; elections for candidates rather than party lists; 469 candidates including 85 women ran for 20 contested FNC seatselection results: elected seats by emirate - Abu Dhabi 4, Dubai 4, Sharjah 3, Ras al-Khaimah 3, Ajman 2, Fujairah 2, Umm al-Quwain 2; note - number of appointed seats for each emirate are same as elected seatsJudicial branch:highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 4 judges)judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the federal president following approval by the Federal Supreme Council, which includes the rulers of the 7 emirates; judge term NAsubordinate courts: Federal Court of Cassation (determines the constitutionality of laws promulgated at the federal and local (emirate) levels; federal level courts of first instance and appeals courts; each emirate has its own court systemPolitical parties and leaders:none; political parties are not allowedPolitical pressure groups and leaders:NAInternational organization participation:ABEDA, AfDB (nonregional member), AFESD, AMF, BIS, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Yusif bin Mani bin Said al-UTAYBAchancery: 3522 International Court NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 243-2400FAX:  (202) 243-2432Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Michael H. CORBINembassy: Embassies District, Plot 38 Sector W59-02, Street No. 4, Abu Dhabimailing address: P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabitelephone:  (2) 414-2200FAX:  (2) 414-2603consulate(s) general: DubaiFlag description:three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a wider vertical red band on the hoist side; the flag incorporates all four Pan-Arab colors, which in this case represent fertility (green), neutrality (white), petroleum resources (black), and unity (red); red was the traditional color incorporated into all flags of the emirates before their unificationNational symbol(s):golden falconNational anthem:name: ""Nashid al-watani al-imarati"" (National Anthem of the UAE)lyrics/music: AREF Al Sheikh Abdullah Al Hassan/Mohamad Abdel WAHABnote: music adopted 1971, lyrics adopted 1996; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of TunisiaEconomy ::United Arab EmiratesEconomy - overview:The UAE has an open economy with a high per capita income and a sizable annual trade surplus. Successful efforts at economic diversification have reduced the portion of GDP based on oil and gas output to 25%. Since the discovery of oil in the UAE more than 30 years ago, the country has undergone a profound transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state with a high standard of living. The government has increased spending on job creation and infrastructure expansion and is opening up utilities to greater private sector involvement. In April 2004, the UAE signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement with Washington and in November 2004 agreed to undertake negotiations toward a Free Trade Agreement with the US; however, those talks have not moved forward. The country's Free Trade Zones - offering 100% foreign ownership and zero taxes - are helping to attract foreign investors. The global financial crisis, tight international credit, and deflated asset prices constricted the economy in 2009. UAE authorities tried to blunt the crisis by increasing spending and boosting liquidity in the banking sector. The crisis hit Dubai hardest, as it was heavily exposed to depressed real estate prices. Dubai lacked sufficient cash to meet its debt obligations, prompting global concern about its solvency. The UAE Central Bank and Abu Dhabi-based banks bought the largest shares. In December 2009 Dubai received an additional $10 billion loan from the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Dependence on oil, a large expatriate workforce, and growing inflation pressures are significant long-term challenges. The UAE's strategic plan for the next few years focuses on diversification and creating more opportunities for nationals through improved education and increased private sector employment.GDP (purchasing power parity):$275.8 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 50$265.4 billion (2011 est.)$252.3 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$358.9 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:3.9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 875.2% (2011 est.)1.3% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$49,800 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15$49,400 (2011 est.)$48,400 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:37% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1437.4% of GDP (2011 est.)32.1% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 50.5%government consumption: 7.1%investment in fixed capital: 29%investment in inventories: 0.9%exports of goods and services: 86.6%imports of goods and services: -74.1%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 0.8%industry: 56%services: 43.2% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:dates, vegetables, watermelons; poultry, eggs, dairy products; fishIndustries:petroleum and petrochemicals; fishing, aluminum, cement, fertilizers, commercial ship repair, construction materials, some boat building, handicrafts, textilesIndustrial production growth rate:4.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 63Labor force:4.337 millioncountry comparison to the world: 87note: expatriates account for about 85% of the work force (2012 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 7%industry: 15%services: 78% (2000 est.)Unemployment rate:2.4% (2001)country comparison to the world: 17Population below poverty line:19.5% (2003)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Budget:revenues: $130.3 billionexpenditures: $114.2 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:36.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 59Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):4.5% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15Public debt:43.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 8146.5% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):0.7% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 110.9% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:NA%Stock of narrow money:$80.53 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 41$71.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$234.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 36$224.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$313.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 34$293.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$93.77 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 41$104.7 billion (31 December 2010)$109.6 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:$26.76 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15$30.65 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$300.9 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 19$281.6 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:crude oil 45%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, datesExports - partners:Japan 15.6%, India 13.4%, Iran 10.5%, Thailand 5.6%, Singapore 5.5%, South Korea 5.3% (2012)Imports:$220.3 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 24$202.1 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodImports - partners:India 17%, China 13.8%, US 10.5%, Germany 5.2%, Japan 4.2% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$42.97 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 45$37.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$163.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 35$159.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$91.56 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 42$83.36 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$58.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 35$55.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Emirati dirhams (AED) per US dollar -3.673 (2012 est.)3.673 (2011 est.)3.6725 (2010 est.)3.673 (2009)3.6725 (2008)Energy ::United Arab EmiratesElectricity - production:83.31 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 37Electricity - consumption:74.12 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 37Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 153Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 153Electricity - installed generating capacity:23.25 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 46Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 153Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 99Crude oil - production:3.087 million bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 7Crude oil - exports:2.036 million bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 6Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 147Crude oil - proved reserves:97.8 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 7Refined petroleum products - production:346,900 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 38Refined petroleum products - consumption:572,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 31Refined petroleum products - exports:452,400 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 16Refined petroleum products - imports:377,300 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 16Natural gas - production:51.28 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Natural gas - consumption:60.54 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 13Natural gas - exports:7.65 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 26Natural gas - imports:16.91 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 17Natural gas - proved reserves:6.089 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 7Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:199.4 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 26Communications ::United Arab EmiratesTelephones - main lines in use:1.825 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 61Telephones - mobile cellular:11.727 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 66Telephone system:general assessment: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubaidomestic: microwave radio relay, fiber optic and coaxial cableinternational: country code - 971; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia (2011)Broadcast media:except for the many organizations now operating in Dubai's Media Free Zone, most TV and radio stations remain government-owned; widespread use of satellite dishes provides access to pan-Arab and other international broadcasts (2007)Internet country code:.aeInternet hosts:337,804 (2012)country comparison to the world: 61Internet users:3.449 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 61Transportation ::United Arab EmiratesAirports:43 (2013)country comparison to the world: 100Airports - with paved runways:total: 25over 3,047 m: 122,438 to 3,047 m: 31,524 to 2,437 m: 5914 to 1,523 m: 3under 914 m: 2 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 18over 3,047 m: 12,438 to 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 4914 to 1,523 m: 6under 914 m:6 (2013)Heliports:5 (2013)Pipelines:condensate 533 km; gas 3,277 km; liquid petroleum gas 300 km; oil 3,287 km; oil/gas/water 24 km; refined products 218 km; water 99 km (2013)Roadways:total: 4,080 kmcountry comparison to the world: 157paved: 4,080 km (includes 253 km of expressways) (2008)Merchant marine:total: 61country comparison to the world: 65by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 13, chemical tanker 8, container 7, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 24, roll on/roll off 4foreign-owned: 13 (Greece 3, Kuwait 10)registered in other countries: 253 (Bahamas 23, Barbados 1, Belize 3, Cambodia 2, Comoros 8, Cyprus 3, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 5, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 1, India 4, Iran 2, Jordan 2, Liberia 37, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 12, Mexico 1, Netherlands 4, North Korea 2, Panama 83, Papua New Guinea 6, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 8, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 6, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 10, Tanzania 3, Togo 1, UK 8, Vanuatu 1, unknown 8) (2010)Ports and terminals:Al Fujayrah, Mina' Jabal 'Ali (Dubai), Khor Fakkan (Khawr Fakkan), Mubarraz Island, Mina' Rashid (Dubai), Mina' Saqr (Ra's al Khaymah)Military ::United Arab EmiratesMilitary branches:United Arab Emirates Armed Forces: Critical Infrastructure Coastal Patrol Agency (CNIA), Land Forces, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense, Border and Coast Guard Directorate (BCGD) (2012)Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; 18 years of age for officers and women; no conscription; 16-22 years of age for candidates for the UAE Naval College (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 2,676,928 (includes non-nationals)females age 16-49: 981,649 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 2,229,366females age 16-49: 842,759 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 27,439female: 24,419 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:6.4% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 9Transnational Issues ::United Arab EmiratesDisputes - international:boundary agreement was signed and ratified with Oman in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves, but contents of the agreement and detailed maps showing the alignment have not been published; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which Iran occupiesIllicit drugs:the UAE is a drug transshipment point for traffickers given its proximity to Southwest Asian drug-producing countries; the UAE's position as a major financial center makes it vulnerable to money laundering; anti-money-laundering controls improving, but informal banking remains unregulated"
The World Factbook. 2014.